Chennai (Madras) History Occupied by the British for 300 years, Chennai emerged as an energetic metropolis that’s fiercely proud of its Tamil heritage. The state’s Telugu-speaking areas were separated to form part of the new state of On 22 August 1639, Francis Day secured the Grant by the Damarla Venkatadri Nayakadu, Nayaka of Wandiwash, giving over to the East India Company a three-mile-long strip of land, a fishing village called Madraspatnam, copies of which were endorsed by Andrew Cogan, the Chief of the Masulipatam Factory, and are even now preserved. The calico cloth from the local area, which was in high demand, was of poor quality and not suitable for export to Europe. Several times throughout the life of the colony, the Fort became the last refuge of Europeans and their allied Indian communities due to raids by several Indian rulers and powers, which resulted in the almost total destruction of the town. (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India) Formerly known as Madras, the modern city of Chennai has a long history as a settled area, beginning more than 1,000 years ago. The city has changed its boundaries as well as the geographic limits of its quarters several times, principally as a result of raids by surrounding Hindu and Muslim powers. Following several outbreaks of violence by various Hindu and Muslim Indian communities against the Christian Europeans, White Town's defenses and its territorial charter was expanded to incorporate most of the area which had grown up around its walls thereby incorporating most of its Catholic European settlements. So, he suggested that the name ought to be ‘Tamil Nadu-Madras State’. All three grants are said to have been engraved on gold plates which were later reported to have been plundered, disappearing during one of the genocides of the English colony. However, there are city records of their existence long afterward, and it has been suggested that the present government may still hold them. In 1930, the Tamil Department was further expanded. January 2021 0 0 According to the new party history, instead of being named Madras, it was named Chennai, after a village called Chennapattanam, in honour of Damarla Chennapa Nayakudu, father of Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu, who controlled the entire coastal country from Pulicat in the north to the Portuguese settlement of Santhome.[4][5]. After India became independent in 1947, the city became the administrative and legislative capital of Madras State which was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1968. The Vijayanagar rulers who controlled the area, appointed chieftains known as Nayaks who ruled over the different regions of the province almost independently. In turn, the Madras Stock Exchange was established in 1920. Following the Treaty of Madras which brought that war to an end, the external threats to Madras significantly decreased. Subsequently, Firmans were issued by the Mughal Emperor granting the rights of the English East India company in Madras and formally ending the official capacity of local rulers to attack the British. The Dioceses of Chingleput, Coimbatore, Ootacamund and Vellore … The British fought with various European powers, notably the French at Vandavasi (Wandiwash) in 1760, where de Lally was defeated by Sir Eyre Coote, and the Danish at Tharangambadi (Tranquebar). Under the Kings, local chiefs or governors known as Nayaks ruled over each district. In the Tamil language, the … However, from 1960s, the Central government started gearing up the use of Hindi in business and government. Although, Madraspatnam is named in later records following the establishment of Fort St. George, this is likely because of the discriminatory nature of the local caste system. The Pallava, the Chola, the Pandya, and Vijaynagar the noticeable dynasties ruled over Chennai. Home Rule Movement in Tamil Nadu The Home rule Movement in Madras was organized by Mrs. Annie Besant between 1916 and 1918.The first indication of Annie Besant’s decision to launch a Home Rule Movement appeared in New India in September 1915. The Original Name of Madras Is Puliyur kottam which is 2000 year old Tamil ancient name. Today, they are the … They then strengthened and expanded Fort St George over the next thirty years to bear subsequent attacks, the strongest of which came from the French (1759, under Thomas Arthur, Comte de Lally), and later Hyder Ali, the Sultan of Mysore in 1767 during the First Anglo-Mysore War. The Fort still stands today, and a part of it is used to house the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly and the Office of the Chief Minister. • Madras was the first major British settlement in India, and until 1774 was the capital of the entire British Empire in the east, which stretched from India to Indonesia. SUBRAMANIA SIVA V.O. Most of these were recruited as cheap labor from the relatively poor Telugu nationality, which in turn enraged the Tamil nationals who were originally the working and middle class settlers of Madras in the late 18th century. This new grant is important regarding the legal and civic development of the English settlement. Breaking with the tradition of the closed and almost wholly British controlled system of the English East India Company, The Madras Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1836 by Fredrick Adam, Governor of the Madras Presidency (the second oldest Chamber of Commerce in the country). Their small fortified settlement quickly attracted other East Indian traders and as the Dutch position collapsed under hostile Indian power they also slowly joined the settlement. During the reorganisation of states in India on linguistic lines, in 1953, Telugu speakers wanted Madras as the capital of Andhra Pradesh[10] and coined the slogan "Madras Manade" (Madras is ours). In due course, the two towns Madraspattinam and Chennapattinam merged in the 17th century i.e. The medieval period of the history of the Tamil country saw the rise and fall of many kingdoms, some of whom went on to the extent of empires, exerting influences both in India and overseas. As a result, the Hindus and Muslims cooperated closely during the movement in Tamil Nadu. May 21, 2019 - 525 Likes, 7 Comments - Brown History (@brownhistory) on Instagram: “Portrait of a seated girl wearing Jewellery, from Madras in Tamil Nadu - 1872” The DMK renamed Madras to Chennai as DMK founder Anna renamed Madras State as Tamil Nadu. In fact, in all records of the times, a difference is made between the original village of Madraspatnam and the new town growing around the Fort known as "White Town". Today, Chennai also has a growing expatriate population especially from the United States, Europe and East Asia who work in the industries and IT centres. But this time it was by the French under General La Bourdonnais, who used to be the Governor of Mauritius. Other prominent companies in the city included Gordon Woodroffe, Best & Crompton, Higginbotham's, Hoe & Co and P. Orr & Sons. A popular explanation is that the name comes from the name of Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, Nayaka of Chandragiri and Vandavasi, father of Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, from whom the English acquired the town in 1639. (ii) Tamil nationalist periodical Swadesamitran was started in 1891. Showing page 1. However, it is widely recorded that while the official center of the present settlement was designated Fort St. George, the British applied the name Madras to a new large city which had grown up around the Fort including the "White Town" consisting principally of British settlers, and "Black Town" consisting of principally Catholic Europeans and allied Indian minorities. After India's Independence, the state of Madras came into existence and 1968, the name was changed to Tamil Nadu. Chennai, originally known as "Madras", was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Penna River of Nellore and the Ponnaiyar river of Cuddalore. Tondaimandalam was ruled in the 2nd century CE by Tonda… However, other national groups, chiefly FrenchPortuguese, and other Catholic merchants had separate agreements with the Nayak which allowed them in turn to establish trading posts, factories, and warehouses. He was also an influential Nayak ruler under the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya then based in Chandragiri-Vellore Fort, was in-charge of the area of present Chennai city when the English East India Company arrived to establish a factory in the area.[2][3]. Madras was the capital of the Madras Presidency and thus became home to important commercial organisations. Currently, the nomenclature of the area is in a state of controversy. The Grant was for a period of two years and empowered the Company to build a fort and castle on about five square kilometers of its strip of land.[7]. English; বাংলা ; ગુજરાતી; हिन्दी; ಕನ್ನಡ; മലയാളം; తెలుగు; ଓଡ଼ିଆ; தமிழ்; செய்திகள் . Because of its importance to the East India Company, the French plundered and destroyed the village of Chepauk and Blacktown, the locality across from the port where all the dockyard labourers used to live.[8]. As the city is an important administrative and commercial centre, many others such as Bengalis, Punjabis, Gujaratis and Marwaris, as well as people from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar migrated to the city and have contributed to its cosmopolitan nature. History of Archdiocese. CHIDAMBARAM ANNIE BESANT The Madras Native Association was ultimately merged with this organization. Upon this settlement, the English expanded their colony to include a number of other European communities, new British settlements, and various native villages, one of which was named Mudhirasa pattanam. During 16th and 18th century, Madras was ruled by Portuguese and Frenchmen. In 1522, the Portuguese built a port called Sao Tome. [14], Chennai's earlier name of Madras is similarly mired in controversy. 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